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Nitrocellulose for safe operation

1 objective
Ensure during handling, storage, use of nitrocellulose process security.
Scope 2
Nitrocellulose produced applied chemical technology Technology Centeron the handling, storage, use and management.
3 definitions and related properties of nitrocellulose.
3.1 definition of nitrocellulose: cellulose nitrate, also known as nitrocellulose,plain colored or yellowish flake, the molecular formula [C6H7O2 (ONO2)8]n. Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents, inflammable, explosive.Nitrogen is generally 11~13%. Industry can be used to make paint,photographic films, celluloid, plastic, and smokeless powder, and so on.Chemical often used in making Collodion, adhesives, glue the bottlecovers.
3.2 the chemical properties of nitrocellulose: white or light yellow cottonwool, and can dissolve in acetone. Because of nitrocellulose in nitrificationin different conditions, solubility of its nitrogen content is also different, there are differences between nitrogen content exceeding 12.5% for explosiveproperties is very unstable. Relative density: 1.66 melting point: 160~170℃autoignition temperature: 170 c flash point: 12.78 (alcohol) detonationvelocity: 6300 m/s (n 13%) detonation gas volume: 841 l/kg (nitrogencontaining 13.3%) explosion heat: 4.053 million kJ/kg (n 13.3%)
3.3 nitrocellulose fire risks: Mars, high temperature, oxidizing agents, themajority of organic amines (such as diphenyl methyl amine) combustionand explosion would happen. Dry after long storage modification aresusceptible to spontaneous combustion, usually ethanol, isopropyl alcohol,or water as a wetting agent. Wetting agent after drying, prone to fire.
4 responsibilities
4.1 Administrative Division is responsible for the overall management ofnitrocellulose.
4.2 the Procurement Department is responsible for the procurement ofnitrocellulose.
4.3 storage Department is responsible for the handling, storage andmanagement of nitrocellulose.
4.4 QA test in charge of nitrocellulose.
4.5 production department is responsible for dissolving nitrocellulosehandling and use.
5 regulations
5.1 nitrocellulose procurement
Purchasing the demand according to the production plan, procurementprinciples to take small amounts many times, reduce the amountpurchased and brought to the warehouse storage pressure, reducing therisk of storage of nitrocellulose.
5.2 handling and storage of nitrocellulose.
5.2.1 after the arrival of nitrocellulose, Director of the Department oftransportation shall promptly notify the Chief of personnel safety, by theregistration of safety officers and the two men in charge of raw materials,accounting.
5.2.2 the storage Department Porter during the unloading process, weshould follow the principles of careful, no drag, throw, stepped on, impactand other rough handling.
5.2.3 nitrocellulose should be under the supervision of the safety officerafter discharge, handling and storage in a special warehouse for privatesites or private storage room (Cabinet), and expert management. Storageroom should be dry and cool, the main channel to have a safe distanceshall not be memory stored, not in the open, wet, low-lying where stagnant water leaks and storage.
5.2.4 nitrocellulose storage room shall comply with the provisions relating tosafety, fire prevention, and setting according to the type, nature,appropriate ventilation, explosion-proof, leak-proof, fire, lightning, alarm,fire, Sun, eliminate static electricity and other security measures.
5.3 sampling and testing of nitrocellulose
5.3.1 after the arrival of nitrocellulose, QC inspector shall conduct samplinginspection in the first time, sampling should be notified in advance whenthe Executive Director of personnel security, accompanied by the safetyofficer for sampling.
5.3.2 Inspector sampling using small sharp knife cut a small corner of thebag, and aperture control in less than 5cm. With inking knife carefullyremove the samples from the opening. Pull, pull, tear the barbaricdemolition is strictly prohibited and nonimpact bags.
5.3.3 after you take the sample, inspectors used Scotch tape to mouthglued, and checked by the security officer. Until the safety officerconfirmed before leaving.
5.4 nitrocellulose recipients
5.4.1 after inspection, the nitrocellulose, production should, in principle, willall get to use nitrocellulose finish on the same day.
5.4.2 collar available from warehouse supervisor, safety officer issuedrequisitioning. Collar should be followed when handling with care theprinciple of rough handling behavior is strictly prohibited.
5.4.3 manufacturing Department out of raw materials under the supervisionof the safety officer, using forklifts to the workshop.
5.4.4 nitrocellulose to workshop, workshop should advance as goodventilation, fire and explosion prevention, anti-virus and other securitymeasures. And nitrocellulose to workshop, immediately begins to dissolve.Disassembled and packed, the charging process must be in strictcompliance with policies and procedures, no barbaric demolition, nodrag, throw, stepped on, hit the packaging material.
5.4.5 good dissolve nitrocellulose solution, specifically container splendid attire containing dangerous chemicals, and prior to use, carefully toinspect the container to avoid container leaks, eliminate hidden dangersand prevent accidents such as fires, explosions, toxic.
5.4.6 dissolving Nitrocellulose solutions such as the production of the goodcannot be used in time should apply for restorage, warehouse materialssupervisor, safety Director for registration, billing.
5.4.7 the restorage of nitrocellulose solution should be stored in adedicated storage room (Cabinet), and expert management. Storageroom should be dry and cool, the main channel to have a safe distanceshall not be memory stored, not in the open, wet, low-lying where stagnant water leaks and storage.
5.4.8 nitrocellulose storage room shall comply with the provisions relating tosafety, fire prevention, and setting according to the type, nature,appropriate ventilation, explosion-proof, leak-proof, fire, lightning, alarm,fire, Sun, eliminate static electricity and other security measures.
5.5 the destruction of waste nitrocellulose
5.5.1 waste nitrocellulose destruction, arranged by the company, specificwork by the safety officer in charge. Ensure the safety of the destructionprocess, destroying more than 25kg according to the provisions of thepublic security Department for approval or processing.
5.5.2 non nitrocellulose or mixed with nitrocellulose material into landfillsand sewers, must be labeled with the physical match, labelfree and highly toxic or explosive materials must be stated in advance, otherwiseaccidents during processing, the same accountability.

The introduction and use of nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose is white or slightly yellow, cotton wool, and can dissolve inacetone. Scientific name of cellulose nitrate, used to be callednitrocellulose, nitrated cotton. NC is a polymer. Its molecular weight is verylarge. Its molecular formula is C6H7O2 (ONO2) a (OH) 3-an, where a is thedegree of esterification and n is the degree of polymerization. Traditionallyrepresents the degree of esterification by nitrogen percentage Nitrocellulose is highly flammable and explosive, and their risks determinedin accordance with degree of nitrification, nitrogen content in over 12.5% of high risk of nitrocellulose, fire that is burning. At temperatures above 40° c can accelerate its decomposition and combustion. Nitrogen content of the nitrocellulose of less than 12.5% although more stable, but heat orstore a long time, and gradually decompose and release acids, reducethe firing point and possibility of a spontaneous explosion.
Characters
White silky fibres like cotton. Luguang discoloration decomposition. Solublein ether mixture (1:3), acetone, acetic acid, methanol, ethyl acetate andamyl acetate. Flash point (closed cup) 4 c. Auto-ignition point of about 180degrees. Extremely flammable and extremely fast.
Classification
1th NC divided into industrially strong cotton (n 13.13%), gun cotton, 2nd(nitrogen 11.9%~12.4%), 3rd weak cotton (nitrogencontaining11.8%~12.1%), explosive Collodion (nitrogencontaining 11.94%~12.3%), firesponge (12.5%~12.7% containing nitrogen), clear lacquer cotton (nitrogencontaining 11.6%~12.2%), celluloid cotton (nitrogencontaining10.8%~11.2%). In order to facilitate understanding, NC n ≤ 12.4% andliterature called Collodion, >12.4% of nitrogen known as guncotton.
Use
Mainly used in the production of colored cellophane, films, manufacture ofnitrocellulose lacquer, wood, paint, metal coatings, and type of wax paper, linoleum, printing ink, varnish, bottle wrappers, binders and so on.

How do with nitrocellulose of solid alcohol

Nitrocellulose is white or slightly yellow, cotton wool, and can dissolve inacetone. Scientific name of cellulose nitrate, used to be callednitrocellulose, nitrated cotton. NC is a polymer. Its molecular weight is verylarge. Its molecular formula is [C6H7O2 (ONO2) a (OH) 3-a]n, where a is thedegree of esterification and n is the degree of polymerization. Traditionallyrepresents the degree of esterification by nitrogen percentage. Becauseof nitrocellulose in nitrification in different conditions, solubility of its nitrogencontent is also different, there are differences between nitrogen contentexceeding 12.5% for explosive properties is very unstable, so it must be verycareful! nitrocellulose as a curing agent is rarely used with sodium stearatein General, you can also add some silicone. Stearic acid sodium of curing principle following: stearic acid and sodium hydroxide mixed Hou occurred following reaction, reaction generated of stearic acid sodium is a long carbon chain of polar molecular, at room temperature Xia in alcohol in the easily dissolved. in high of temperature Xia, stearic acid sodium can uniform to dispersed in liquid alcohol in the, and cooling Hou is formed gel colloidal Department, makes alcohol molecular was bondage Yu mutual connection of macromolecules Zhijian, is not flow state and makes alcohol solidified, formed has solid state of alcohol. Role of nitrocellulose should bethe same as sodium stearate here!
You can also add some explosion-proof powder, solid vandal-resistantpowder are doing alcohol, serve to increase the hardness of solid alcohol,and nitrocellulose produced a reaction, reducing the amount ofnitrocellulose, also play a role in combustion-supporting and solidifying.

Nitrocellulose varnish

Nitrocellulose lacquers containing no pigment. Composed of nitrocellulose, resins, toughening agent and solvent composition. Addinghard resin suitable for wood in the composition. Add a soft resin, such asdry oil alkyd resin, coating toughness. Can be used for surface coating ofmetals, wood, and varnish, nitrocellulose and added more toughness withhigh viscosity agent for leather paint. Nitrocellulose lacquer is anitrocellulose, alkyd resin, plasticizers and organic solvent lacquer, is avolatile paints. With a fast drying, glossy soft and so on. Nitrocellulosevarnish into light, semi matte and matte three can be selected accordingto need.

Nitrocellulose varnish features:
1) nitrocellulose lacquer is a nitrocellulose, alkyd resin, plasticizers andorganic solvent lacquer, is a volatile paints,
Nitrocellulose varnish
Nitrocellulose varnish
Fast drying, soft gloss characteristics. Nitrocellulose varnish into light, semimatte and matte three can be selected according to need. Nitrocellulosealso has its drawbacks: high humidity of low easy to brighten, plump, lowhardness.
2) brushing lacquer. Is a kind of clear nitrocellulose lacquer, is composed ofnitrocellulose, resins, pigments and organic solvent in a non-transparentpaint. This paint specially formulated for artificial construction, more quickdrying characteristics.
3) nitrocellulose lacquers the main auxiliary agents
A days that water. It is composed of esters, ketones, alcohols, benzenemixture of organic solvents, such as a bananasmelling colorless liquid.Main blending nitrocellulose and curing.
B.whitewater, also known as white water-proof, known as ethylene glycolmonobutyl ether. Wet weather during construction, the film will bewhitening and loss appropriately diluted dose of Nitro-magnetized watercan be removed.

Introduction and use of nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose is white or slightly yellow cotton wool, can be dissolved in acetone. Generic cellulose nitrate, formerly nitrocellulose cotton, nitrocellulose. NC is a polymer. Its large molecular weight. Its molecular formula is C6H7O2 (ONO2) a (OH) 3-an, where a is the degree of esterification, n is the degree of polymerization. The practice of using the nitrogen content of the degree of esterification percentage representative. . Nitrocellulose is highly flammable and explosive, according to their degree of danger depending on the degree of nitrification, nitrogen content of more than 12.5% of nitrocellulose great danger, a fire that is burning. In the temperature exceeds 40 ℃, can accelerate the decomposition and combustion. Nitrogen content of less than 12.5% of nitrocellulose, although relatively stable, but the heat or store falling gradually decompose and release acid, lower ignition point, there may be spontaneous combustion blew.
Characters
White filamentous shape of cotton fiber. Lucy photolysis discoloration. Was dissolved in a mixture of ether (1:3), acetone, glacial acetic acid, methanol, ethyl acetate and amyl acetate. Flash point (closed cup) 4 ℃. Spontaneous point about 180 ℃. Burns easily and fast.
Classification
Industrial put into the 1st NC strong cotton (nitrogen ≥13.13%), on the 2nd of strong cotton (11.9% ~ 12.4% nitrogen), the 3rd weak cotton (11.8% ~ 12.1% nitrogen), burst collodion (nitrogen 11.94% ~ 12.3%), collodion (nitrogen from 12.5% to 12.7%), varnish with cotton (nitrogen 11.6% ~ 12.2%), (10.8% ~ 11.2% nitrogen) celluloid cotton. For ease of understanding, but also literature ≤12.4% of the nitrogen NC said collodion, the nitrogen> 12.4% said collodion.
Use
Mainly used to produce colored celluloid, film, manufacture various lacquer, wood coatings, metal coatings, typing waxed, varnished, speed printing inks, nail polish, bottle covers, adhesives.

Nitrocellulose and printing ink production safety management

Nitrocellulose is the biggest characteristic of fastdrying, high film hardness,tenacity, the disadvanta

Nitrocellulose is the biggest characteristic of fastdrying, high film hardness,tenacity, the disadvantage is poor adhesion, yellowing easy. In ink, isgenerally not used alone, need compatibility with other resins togetherwith, for example, was spelled for solvent based ink to enhance drying ofplastics.
??? Indicator for one, nitrocellulose and technology
??? Nitrocellulose (Industrial Nitrocellulose), also known as cellulose nitrate,is a natural plant fiber by chemical processing of. The cellulose content ofcotton in the highest reached about 90%, cellulose is mainly naturalpolymer of βglucosebased ring.
Nitrocellulose is a plain color or yellowish flake, the molecular formula[C6H7O2 (ONO2) 8]n. Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents,inflammable, explosive. Nitrogen is generally 11zhi13%. According to thehigh or low nitrogen content, and coatings using nitrocellulose is divided into lh, its content range of 10.7zhi11.4% and 11.5zhi12.2%, respectively.
??? Nitrocellulose main traits: white Floc or flakes fiber, specific heat ofabout 0.4, the relative density of 1.65 to 1.67. Is soluble in ketones, esters,glycol ether solvents. Flammable substances at the genus level. Whenwetting agent content is too low, are sensitive to mechanical shocks.Contact with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and caneasily cause quality change.
??? Nitrocellulose based on the viscosity number of seconds difference,used clothes are not the same. Main use for: mainly used in themanufacture of lacquers, typed stencils, inks, linoleum, top secretenvelopes, binders, leather oils, Nail Polish, Estersoluble or water-solublepaint. Specifications main has: RS1/16 “can for wood and paper Shang of coating; RS1/4” can for wood and paper Shang of coating, and cosmetics class; RS1/2 “car painting, home furniture, and wood, and pencil, and paper of paint, Binder, printing ink by with; RS20” available Yu leather painting, and metal painting, and wood paint, and Binder, and photography film,; S40 “high seconds (80” 300 “500” 1000 “2000”) manufacturing bottle seal glue, and For the fluorescent grade fluorescentcoatings, adhesives or other RT screen use; SS1/8 used for heat sealing waxcoating of paint, cellophane, moisture-proof waterproof paint, wood, floorcolouring.
??? Large volumes of natural cellulose molecules, 600000 to 1500000average molecular weight, solubility is very poor, through modification,and further cracking of lower molecular weight, increasing its solubility inthe solvent can be applied to the ink. Each cellulose molecule chain,formed by 2 βglucose, dehydrated, each βglucose base ring with 3hydroxyl groups, and esterification of acids after reaction becomesnitrocellulose, and the esterification of nitrate, also known as nitrification.
??? Evaluation of nitrate nitrogen is the main quality index, solubility,viscosity and stability. Nitrogen depending on nitration of mixed acidconcentration and dosage. Acid concentration is low, the nitrogencontent of the products is also lower. Industrial production to avoidreacting with plenty of mixed acid water and decrease its concentration.Ratio of sulfuric acid and nitric acid have little effect on products,commonly used ratio of 3 to 1. Viscosity of nitrocellulose directly related tomolecular weight. After nitration of viscosity up to 1000 seconds or morefiber, cannot be applied in coatings and inks, must be boiled under pressure, making molecular decomposition, reduce the viscosity can beused. As we said earlier, the nitrocellulose coatings and inks the viscositybetween 40 seconds and 1/4 of a second, molecular weightapproximately 22000 to 68000.
Reason that nitrate is a flammable explosive materials, is because at 80 per cent of its decomposition releasing nitrogen dioxide higher than 100 cdecomposition is intense, so as to cause an explosion. So for the sake ofsecurity, need 95% of alcohol wet packing of products, the nitrate contentin the product is 70%. The free acid content in the product should not betoo high, otherwise it will easily give rise to decomposition, dangerous.
??? Second, the physicochemical properties of nitrocellulose
??? 1 appearance and shape: white wool fibers or thin sheet material.
??? 2, odor: odorless cellulose nitrate. Wetting agent must have thepungent odor of volatile.
??? 3, PH value: not applicable.
??? 4, density: not applicable.
??? 5, bulk density: 250-600kg/M3
??? 6, nitrocellulose is soluble in esters, ketones and ethylene glycol. Ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol completely miscible with water, butanol isslightly soluble in water.
??? 7, flash point: the 14 c; isopropyl alcohol 12 c; n-butanol 35
??? 8, decomposition temperature: 180
??? Summary of the three, the danger of nitrocellulose
??? Nitrocellulose in terms of risk and dangerous flash point in the categorybelong to class 4.1 flammable solids. Health hazard: cellulose nitrate isharmless to human body. A wetting agent can irritate eyes, skin andrespiratory; excessive exposure to solvent vapors can produce dizziness,stupor and even unconscious. Encroachment is penetrated mainly throughinhalation of volatile wetting agents, water exception. Explosion hazard:nitrocellulose can be flame, heat, vibration, impact, friction, static or sparksignited, burning nitrocellulose will produce toxic gases. Volatile solventvapors may form explosive mixtures with air.
??? Main first-aid measures is determined primarily according to the wettingagent, wetting agent mainly varieties of ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol,first aid measures related to their physical and chemical properties andreferences the nitrocellulose manufacturer provides the specification ofhazardrelated provisions.
Also must pay attention to fire safety measures, correct method of fire-fighting and extinguishing media only a little, is the combustion of cellulosenitrate can only use large amounts of water. Meanwhile, smoke emissionsfrom combustion of cellulose nitrate containing toxic nitrous gases, so you must wear protective equipment, firefighters have to work from the upper hand and should be equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus inorder to prevent possible toxic and irritating smoke, for early fire rescue is also should be aware of. After the fire was extinguished, nitrocellulose mayalso be spontaneous again, ensure that the residue completely wet, thenproceed to the next step on this basis.
??? Nitrocellulose spill emergency, whether the production team or theSecurity Manager, common sense is a must. First priority is to remove theignition fires, no smoking, ensuring fresh air flow. Leaked with eye or skincontact should be avoided. Also should avoid inhalation of volatile vapors.Enter the spill zone wear protective gear. Tools for nitrocellulose should benon-ferrous materials, such as copper or brass collisions do not producesparks or wood materials, plastics manufacturing tools are not allowed.Because friction is easy to produce static electricity. Loose cellulose nitratemust be completely wet with lots of water and carefully clean it. Sealedcontainer and put it into watertight in timely manner. For the ISO14000environmental requirements such as, must prevent the scattering ofcellulose nitrate polluted water, drains, soil or vegetation.
Four, processing and storage of nitrocellulose
??? Nitrocellulose is stable under recommended storage and handlingconditions. Prohibit or strongly alkaline and strongly acid, amine oxidizing agent contacts. Avoid contact with the heat source and fire, shock andfriction. Humidity is getting old, and less stable. Please follow therecommended storage conditions for storage.
Nitrocellulose is the important point. Note: do not drop packaging, sliding,rolling, pulled or hammered; avoid sources of ignition, heat sources,vibration, shock, friction, fire or electricity. Don’t let wet cellulose nitratedrying ensure air flow; when the package is opened, carefully packingcontainers (bags) inner polyethylene bag; avoiding contact with alkali andacids, amines or oxidants; keep minimum stock of products in the region.
??? As store, also to note following several points: store Yu cool ventilation good of warehouse in the; away from fire, and heat, not allows Sun directly irradiation; steel barrels packaging tray load up two a container height; nitrification cellulose not allows and not compatible of raw materials together store, as and strong alkaline and strong acid material, and amine or oxidation oxygen together store; must to by advanced first out principles turnover inventory goods; banned in store district within open or pour empty packaging real; store should meet national and local environmental protection regulations.
??? Warehouse storage of nitrocellulose must be equipped with theexpertise of the technical staff, its warehouses and premises should belocated by professionals, staff should be trained and certified uponexamination. According to the national standard GB13690-92 theprovisions of the classification and labels of dangerous chemical substances commonly used civilian nitrocellulose as the fourth category offlammable solids, flammable substances at the genus level, strictly prohibited civilian air storage or nitrocellulose interspersed. According to the provisions of the code for fire protection design of buildings GB GBJ16-87, storage of nitrocellulose, fire hazard classification as category, civiliannitrocellulose warehouse building not less than 20m from the othercategories of articles from important public buildings fire protectiondistance of not less than 50m.
??? Nitrocellulose and other such items with storage is not allowed, you must isolate limited storage, not more than 200T single largest stock.Nitrocellulose storage premises or warehouse to the transmission anddistribution lines, light fixtures, lighting and fire evacuation signs shallcomply with the safety requirements; nitrification warehouses lightningprotection must be installed. Storage of nitrocellulose moisture (or solvent)content not less than 25%, nitrocellulose safety conformity and certificates;nitrocellulose products packaged in good condition, no damage.
??? In the hot summer months, nitrocellulose air temperature exceeds 30 c,the cooling measures should be taken, such as secure channel with waterhumidification in the library, in the cool rain roof installation using regulardoor ventilation window, which the PRD majority of coatings enterprisesmust pay attention to. In addition, civilian nitrocellulose stored for over sixmonths (by the date of production), be sure to regularly checknitrocellulose by wetting agent (water or solvent) content and stability,stability and performance is not qualified to suppliers in a timely mannerwhen dealing with.
??? Warehouses for storing nitrocellulose, we must establish a strictmanagement system, into civilian use nitrocellulose, storage area, motorvehicles and of vehicles must be banned Fireworks and fire safetymeasures should be taken, enter the library staff cell phones and pagersshould be shut down. When handling, transporting nitrocellulose should belight, light discharge. No throw, hit, hit, hit, hauling, dumping and scrolling.Nitrocellulose not allowed unopened packaged within a library, if you need right out of the box (barrels, packages), opened the packagesamples, appropriate product box (barrel, Pack) moved out of the library asafe place.
??? When you dress up, cleaning, loading and unloading of nitrocellulose,use copper, alloys do not produce sparks or other nonsparking tools,prohibited the use of iron tools. When the repair of NC machiningequipment, nitrocellulose should first clean up equipment. With water wetrepair parts. And use Flash tools. Because sunlight can chemicallyinduceddecomposition of nitrocellulose Burns, nitrocellulose products would takesteps away from light, exposure is prohibited.
??? Prohibition of nitrocellulose stored accumulation of combustibles in theregion (including scrap), with strong oxidants, corrosive substances andorganic amine to cache. Unqualified nitrocellulose shall not be reported as finished, safe location should be specified in the staging process. Scatterednitrocellulose should be promptly cleaned, in order to open a safe placeburned down in a timely manner. Not to throw to leave around; whenburned abandoned civilian nitrocellulose, long-distance (over 3 m) fire.Each time you burned is limited in 1kg respectively. Once the nitrocelluloseBurns, only fast with plenty of water for fire fighting, Sandy must not hide!
??? Countries to strengthen the management of transport of nitrocellulose,ensure the safety of transport of nitrocellulose, nitrocellulose transportrequirements are as follows: first shipment of the nitrocellulose vehicles must be kept in good condition, transport of the road transport of dangerous goods certificate issued by the management authority, and has thetriangle ceiling light, signs of dangerous goods. When shippingnitrocellulose, carriage shall be clean, mat boards, mats or rubber sheets, etc. Equipped with tying ropes, nets, rain-proofsecurity. Second shipmentof the nitrocellulose driver must be in possession of the driver’s license, and in line with the vehicle type of the dangerous goods certificate, master theknowledge of the transport of dangerous goods. Nitrocellulose thirdshipment of vehicles, must hold a document issued by the Fire Departmentof the flammable and explosive chemical goods transportation permits,armed with fire extinguishers, grasp the relevant knowledge of the properuse of fire extinguishers. Nitrocellulose vehicles running on the way ofshipment, must strictly abide by traffic, fire, security regulations, shouldcontrol the speed and keep a safety distance of 50 meters above thevehicle, shall not point residents live in dense, pedestrian and other placeto park. Vehicles is prohibited to take unrelated persons, persons nonsmoking in the car. In a moving way temporary overnight parking ofvehicles, shall arrange for the custody. Such as occurred during the driverequired soldering repair faults, such as, carrying nitrocellulose should bebehind the dump in safe locations to repair the fault.
Five, the pattern of today’s production of nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose is mainly used in the manufacture of paint and celluloid,which is the raw material for production of table tennis. Just as the worldtable tennis competition focused on China, nitrocellulose, internationalcompetition is increasingly becoming competitive in China. Nitrate inChina (TNC), France SNPE and other Giants have established processingbases in mainland China, SNC as a County leader of nitrocellulose, withmany multinational companies compete and cooperate.
??? As early as 40 years ago, some people think nitrocellulose has come tothe end of his life, and because at that time there has been seems toreplace the nitrocellulose, acrylic resin. But in fact, until today,nitrocellulose products are also widely used, especially in Asia, especially inChina, is flourishing. Unlike some other industries, Chinese NC industry‘sposition is also leaps and bounds in the international arena. Currentproduction of nitrocellulose, there are dozens of factories in the world, butthat will quickly reduce the number could end up only more than 10 companies will survive. Nitrocellulose in European and American marketsare shrinking, while the Asian market is growingin recent years, with thedevelopment of home decoration and automobile industry, nitrocelluloseAsian markets to markets in Europe and America, a rapidly growing 5% rate of more than a year, the Chinese market was growing faster. However,nitrocellulose world markets and Chinese markets have one thing in common: both are far more production capacity than the marketdemand, the competitive situation grim. Now, global demand fornitrocellulose market basically stable at 200,000 tons, which needs nearly80,000 tonnes per year in Asia, mainland China demand more than 60,000tons per year.
??? SNC is the world‘s largest in the nitrocellulose production enterprises, butat present many nitrocellulose manufacturer wanted to seize the Chinesemarket on nitrocellulose peers also have expanded production capacity in the country, a desperate search for markets, in this case, the consolidationof existing markets and developing new markets is very difficult. WorldFrance, and Brazil, and India and the United Kingdom, and Germany, theCzech Republic, as well as extermination in Taiwan have a greaternitrocellulose manufacturer, when these companies have turned to Chinawhen the SNC cannot be too optimistic. For the SNC, the most powerfulnitriterivals China and Taiwan (TNC) and France SNPE. Taiwan, province ofChina’s Sichuan province, SNC, TNC and France‘s SNPE, appears to bethree battles, also can be seen as two strong against the other. Becausenitrate and SNPE have formed together in mainland Chinathey haveincorporated joint venture in 1996 in Hong Kong Hong Kong Chinanitrocellulose limited, with registered capital of us $ 10 million (close to theSNC or carried 130 million yuan of registered capital), with a totalinvestment of 25 million dollars. In the joint venture company under the

ge is poor adhesion, yellowing easy. In ink, isgenerally not used alone, need compatibility with other resins togetherwith, for example, was spelled for solvent based ink to enhance drying

Nitrocellulose is the biggest characteristic of fastdrying, high film hardness,tenacity, the disadvantage is poor adhesion, yellowing easy. In ink, isgenerally not used alone, need compatibility with other resins togetherwith, for example, was spelled for solvent based ink to enhance drying ofplastics.
??? Indicator for one, nitrocellulose and technology
??? Nitrocellulose (Industrial Nitrocellulose), also known as cellulose nitrate,is a natural plant fiber by chemical processing of. The cellulose content ofcotton in the highest reached about 90%, cellulose is mainly naturalpolymer of βglucosebased ring.
Nitrocellulose is a plain color or yellowish flake, the molecular formula[C6H7O2 (ONO2) 8]n. Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents,inflammable, explosive. Nitrogen is generally 11zhi13%. According to thehigh or low nitrogen content, and coatings using nitrocellulose is divided into lh, its content range of 10.7zhi11.4% and 11.5zhi12.2%, respectively.
??? Nitrocellulose main traits: white Floc or flakes fiber, specific heat ofabout 0.4, the relative density of 1.65 to 1.67. Is soluble in ketones, esters,glycol ether solvents. Flammable substances at the genus level. Whenwetting agent content is too low, are sensitive to mechanical shocks.Contact with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and caneasily cause quality change.
??? Nitrocellulose based on the viscosity number of seconds difference,used clothes are not the same. Main use for: mainly used in themanufacture of lacquers, typed stencils, inks, linoleum, top secretenvelopes, binders, leather oils, Nail Polish, Estersoluble or water-solublepaint. Specifications main has: RS1/16 “can for wood and paper Shang of coating; RS1/4” can for wood and paper Shang of coating, and cosmetics class; RS1/2 “car painting, home furniture, and wood, and pencil, and paper of paint, Binder, printing ink by with; RS20” available Yu leather painting, and metal painting, and wood paint, and Binder, and photography film,; S40 “high seconds (80” 300 “500” 1000 “2000”) manufacturing bottle seal glue, and For the fluorescent grade fluorescentcoatings, adhesives or other RT screen use; SS1/8 used for heat sealing waxcoating of paint, cellophane, moisture-proof waterproof paint, wood, floorcolouring.
??? Large volumes of natural cellulose molecules, 600000 to 1500000average molecular weight, solubility is very poor, through modification,and further cracking of lower molecular weight, increasing its solubility inthe solvent can be applied to the ink. Each cellulose molecule chain,formed by 2 βglucose, dehydrated, each βglucose base ring with 3hydroxyl groups, and esterification of acids after reaction becomesnitrocellulose, and the esterification of nitrate, also known as nitrification.
??? Evaluation of nitrate nitrogen is the main quality index, solubility,viscosity and stability. Nitrogen depending on nitration of mixed acidconcentration and dosage. Acid concentration is low, the nitrogencontent of the products is also lower. Industrial production to avoidreacting with plenty of mixed acid water and decrease its concentration.Ratio of sulfuric acid and nitric acid have little effect on products,commonly used ratio of 3 to 1. Viscosity of nitrocellulose directly related tomolecular weight. After nitration of viscosity up to 1000 seconds or morefiber, cannot be applied in coatings and inks, must be boiled under pressure, making molecular decomposition, reduce the viscosity can beused. As we said earlier, the nitrocellulose coatings and inks the viscositybetween 40 seconds and 1/4 of a second, molecular weightapproximately 22000 to 68000.
Reason that nitrate is a flammable explosive materials, is because at 80 per cent of its decomposition releasing nitrogen dioxide higher than 100 cdecomposition is intense, so as to cause an explosion. So for the sake ofsecurity, need 95% of alcohol wet packing of products, the nitrate contentin the product is 70%. The free acid content in the product should not betoo high, otherwise it will easily give rise to decomposition, dangerous.
??? Second, the physicochemical properties of nitrocellulose
??? 1 appearance and shape: white wool fibers or thin sheet material.
??? 2, odor: odorless cellulose nitrate. Wetting agent must have thepungent odor of volatile.
??? 3, PH value: not applicable.
??? 4, density: not applicable.
??? 5, bulk density: 250-600kg/M3
??? 6, nitrocellulose is soluble in esters, ketones and ethylene glycol. Ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol completely miscible with water, butanol isslightly soluble in water.
??? 7, flash point: the 14 c; isopropyl alcohol 12 c; n-butanol 35
??? 8, decomposition temperature: 180
??? Summary of the three, the danger of nitrocellulose
??? Nitrocellulose in terms of risk and dangerous flash point in the categorybelong to class 4.1 flammable solids. Health hazard: cellulose nitrate isharmless to human body. A wetting agent can irritate eyes, skin andrespiratory; excessive exposure to solvent vapors can produce dizziness,stupor and even unconscious. Encroachment is penetrated mainly throughinhalation of volatile wetting agents, water exception. Explosion hazard:nitrocellulose can be flame, heat, vibration, impact, friction, static or sparksignited, burning nitrocellulose will produce toxic gases. Volatile solventvapors may form explosive mixtures with air.
??? Main first-aid measures is determined primarily according to the wettingagent, wetting agent mainly varieties of ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol,first aid measures related to their physical and chemical properties andreferences the nitrocellulose manufacturer provides the specification ofhazardrelated provisions.
Also must pay attention to fire safety measures, correct method of fire-fighting and extinguishing media only a little, is the combustion of cellulosenitrate can only use large amounts of water. Meanwhile, smoke emissionsfrom combustion of cellulose nitrate containing toxic nitrous gases, so you must wear protective equipment, firefighters have to work from the upper hand and should be equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus inorder to prevent possible toxic and irritating smoke, for early fire rescue is also should be aware of. After the fire was extinguished, nitrocellulose mayalso be spontaneous again, ensure that the residue completely wet, thenproceed to the next step on this basis.
??? Nitrocellulose spill emergency, whether the production team or theSecurity Manager, common sense is a must. First priority is to remove theignition fires, no smoking, ensuring fresh air flow. Leaked with eye or skincontact should be avoided. Also should avoid inhalation of volatile vapors.Enter the spill zone wear protective gear. Tools for nitrocellulose should benon-ferrous materials, such as copper or brass collisions do not producesparks or wood materials, plastics manufacturing tools are not allowed.Because friction is easy to produce static electricity. Loose cellulose nitratemust be completely wet with lots of water and carefully clean it. Sealedcontainer and put it into watertight in timely manner. For the ISO14000environmental requirements such as, must prevent the scattering ofcellulose nitrate polluted water, drains, soil or vegetation.
Four, processing and storage of nitrocellulose
??? Nitrocellulose is stable under recommended storage and handlingconditions. Prohibit or strongly alkaline and strongly acid, amine oxidizing agent contacts. Avoid contact with the heat source and fire, shock andfriction. Humidity is getting old, and less stable. Please follow therecommended storage conditions for storage.
Nitrocellulose is the important point. Note: do not drop packaging, sliding,rolling, pulled or hammered; avoid sources of ignition, heat sources,vibration, shock, friction, fire or electricity. Don’t let wet cellulose nitratedrying ensure air flow; when the package is opened, carefully packingcontainers (bags) inner polyethylene bag; avoiding contact with alkali andacids, amines or oxidants; keep minimum stock of products in the region.
??? As store, also to note following several points: store Yu cool ventilation good of warehouse in the; away from fire, and heat, not allows Sun directly irradiation; steel barrels packaging tray load up two a container height; nitrification cellulose not allows and not compatible of raw materials together store, as and strong alkaline and strong acid material, and amine or oxidation oxygen together store; must to by advanced first out principles turnover inventory goods; banned in store district within open or pour empty packaging real; store should meet national and local environmental protection regulations.
??? Warehouse storage of nitrocellulose must be equipped with theexpertise of the technical staff, its warehouses and premises should belocated by professionals, staff should be trained and certified uponexamination. According to the national standard GB13690-92 theprovisions of the classification and labels of dangerous chemical substances commonly used civilian nitrocellulose as the fourth category offlammable solids, flammable substances at the genus level, strictly prohibited civilian air storage or nitrocellulose interspersed. According to the provisions of the code for fire protection design of buildings GB GBJ16-87, storage of nitrocellulose, fire hazard classification as category, civiliannitrocellulose warehouse building not less than 20m from the othercategories of articles from important public buildings fire protectiondistance of not less than 50m.
??? Nitrocellulose and other such items with storage is not allowed, you must isolate limited storage, not more than 200T single largest stock.Nitrocellulose storage premises or warehouse to the transmission anddistribution lines, light fixtures, lighting and fire evacuation signs shallcomply with the safety requirements; nitrification warehouses lightningprotection must be installed. Storage of nitrocellulose moisture (or solvent)content not less than 25%, nitrocellulose safety conformity and certificates;nitrocellulose products packaged in good condition, no damage.
??? In the hot summer months, nitrocellulose air temperature exceeds 30 c,the cooling measures should be taken, such as secure channel with waterhumidification in the library, in the cool rain roof installation using regulardoor ventilation window, which the PRD majority of coatings enterprisesmust pay attention to. In addition, civilian nitrocellulose stored for over sixmonths (by the date of production), be sure to regularly checknitrocellulose by wetting agent (water or solvent) content and stability,stability and performance is not qualified to suppliers in a timely mannerwhen dealing with.
??? Warehouses for storing nitrocellulose, we must establish a strictmanagement system, into civilian use nitrocellulose, storage area, motorvehicles and of vehicles must be banned Fireworks and fire safetymeasures should be taken, enter the library staff cell phones and pagersshould be shut down. When handling, transporting nitrocellulose should belight, light discharge. No throw, hit, hit, hit, hauling, dumping and scrolling.Nitrocellulose not allowed unopened packaged within a library, if you need right out of the box (barrels, packages), opened the packagesamples, appropriate product box (barrel, Pack) moved out of the library asafe place.
??? When you dress up, cleaning, loading and unloading of nitrocellulose,use copper, alloys do not produce sparks or other nonsparking tools,prohibited the use of iron tools. When the repair of NC machiningequipment, nitrocellulose should first clean up equipment. With water wetrepair parts. And use Flash tools. Because sunlight can chemicallyinduceddecomposition of nitrocellulose Burns, nitrocellulose products would takesteps away from light, exposure is prohibited.
??? Prohibition of nitrocellulose stored accumulation of combustibles in theregion (including scrap), with strong oxidants, corrosive substances andorganic amine to cache. Unqualified nitrocellulose shall not be reported as finished, safe location should be specified in the staging process. Scatterednitrocellulose should be promptly cleaned, in order to open a safe placeburned down in a timely manner. Not to throw to leave around; whenburned abandoned civilian nitrocellulose, long-distance (over 3 m) fire.Each time you burned is limited in 1kg respectively. Once the nitrocelluloseBurns, only fast with plenty of water for fire fighting, Sandy must not hide!
??? Countries to strengthen the management of transport of nitrocellulose,ensure the safety of transport of nitrocellulose, nitrocellulose transportrequirements are as follows: first shipment of the nitrocellulose vehicles must be kept in good condition, transport of the road transport of dangerous goods certificate issued by the management authority, and has thetriangle ceiling light, signs of dangerous goods. When shippingnitrocellulose, carriage shall be clean, mat boards, mats or rubber sheets, etc. Equipped with tying ropes, nets, rain-proofsecurity. Second shipmentof the nitrocellulose driver must be in possession of the driver’s license, and in line with the vehicle type of the dangerous goods certificate, master theknowledge of the transport of dangerous goods. Nitrocellulose thirdshipment of vehicles, must hold a document issued by the Fire Departmentof the flammable and explosive chemical goods transportation permits,armed with fire extinguishers, grasp the relevant knowledge of the properuse of fire extinguishers. Nitrocellulose vehicles running on the way ofshipment, must strictly abide by traffic, fire, security regulations, shouldcontrol the speed and keep a safety distance of 50 meters above thevehicle, shall not point residents live in dense, pedestrian and other placeto park. Vehicles is prohibited to take unrelated persons, persons nonsmoking in the car. In a moving way temporary overnight parking ofvehicles, shall arrange for the custody. Such as occurred during the driverequired soldering repair faults, such as, carrying nitrocellulose should bebehind the dump in safe locations to repair the fault.
Five, the pattern of today’s production of nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose is mainly used in the manufacture of paint and celluloid,which is the raw material for production of table tennis. Just as the worldtable tennis competition focused on China, nitrocellulose, internationalcompetition is increasingly becoming competitive in China. Nitrate inChina (TNC), France SNPE and other Giants have established processingbases in mainland China, SNC as a County leader of nitrocellulose, withmany multinational companies compete and cooperate.
??? As early as 40 years ago, some people think nitrocellulose has come tothe end of his life, and because at that time there has been seems toreplace the nitrocellulose, acrylic resin. But in fact, until today,nitrocellulose products are also widely used, especially in Asia, especially inChina, is flourishing. Unlike some other industries, Chinese NC industry‘sposition is also leaps and bounds in the international arena. Currentproduction of nitrocellulose, there are dozens of factories in the world, butthat will quickly reduce the number could end up only more than 10 companies will survive. Nitrocellulose in European and American marketsare shrinking, while the Asian market is growingin recent years, with thedevelopment of home decoration and automobile industry, nitrocelluloseAsian markets to markets in Europe and America, a rapidly growing 5% rate of more than a year, the Chinese market was growing faster. However,nitrocellulose world markets and Chinese markets have one thing in common: both are far more production capacity than the marketdemand, the competitive situation grim. Now, global demand fornitrocellulose market basically stable at 200,000 tons, which needs nearly80,000 tonnes per year in Asia, mainland China demand more than 60,000tons per year.
??? SNC is the world‘s largest in the nitrocellulose production enterprises, butat present many nitrocellulose manufacturer wanted to seize the Chinesemarket on nitrocellulose peers also have expanded production capacity in the country, a desperate search for markets, in this case, the consolidationof existing markets and developing new markets is very difficult. WorldFrance, and Brazil, and India and the United Kingdom, and Germany, theCzech Republic, as well as extermination in Taiwan have a greaternitrocellulose manufacturer, when these companies have turned to Chinawhen the SNC cannot be too optimistic. For the SNC, the most powerfulnitriterivals China and Taiwan (TNC) and France SNPE. Taiwan, province ofChina’s Sichuan province, SNC, TNC and France‘s SNPE, appears to bethree battles, also can be seen as two strong against the other. Becausenitrate and SNPE have formed together in mainland Chinathey haveincorporated joint venture in 1996 in Hong Kong Hong Kong Chinanitrocellulose limited, with registered capital of us $ 10 million (close to theSNC or carried 130 million yuan of registered capital), with a totalinvestment of 25 million dollars. In the joint venture company under the

ofplastics.

??? Indicator for one, nitrocellulose and technology
??? Nitrocellulose (Industrial Nitrocellulose), also known as cellulose nitrate,is a natural plant fiber by chemical processing of. The cellulose content ofcotton in the highest reached about 90%, cellulose is mainly naturalpolymer of βglucosebased ring.
Nitrocellulose is a plain color or yellowish flake, the molecular formula[C6H7O2 (ONO2) 8]n. Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents,inflammable, explosive. Nitrogen is generally 11zhi13%. According to thehigh or low nitrogen content, and coatings using nitrocellulose is divided into lh, its content range of 10.7zhi11.4% and 11.5zhi12.2%, respectively.
??? Nitrocellulose main traits: white Floc or flakes fiber, specific heat ofabout 0.4, the relative density of 1.65 to 1.67. Is soluble in ketones, esters,glycol ether solvents. Flammable substances at the genus level. Whenwetting agent content is too low, are sensitive to mechanical shocks.Contact with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and caneasily cause quality change.
??? Nitrocellulose based on the viscosity number of seconds difference,used clothes are not the same. Main use for: mainly used in themanufacture of lacquers, typed stencils, inks, linoleum, top secretenvelopes, binders, leather oils, Nail Polish, Estersoluble or water-solublepaint. Specifications main has: RS1/16 “can for wood and paper Shang of coating; RS1/4” can for wood and paper Shang of coating, and cosmetics class; RS1/2 “car painting, home furniture, and wood, and pencil, and paper of paint, Binder, printing ink by with; RS20” available Yu leather painting, and metal painting, and wood paint, and Binder, and photography film,; S40 “high seconds (80” 300 “500” 1000 “2000”) manufacturing bottle seal glue, and For the fluorescent grade fluorescentcoatings, adhesives or other RT screen use; SS1/8 used for heat sealing waxcoating of paint, cellophane, moisture-proof waterproof paint, wood, floorcolouring.
??? Large volumes of natural cellulose molecules, 600000 to 1500000average molecular weight, solubility is very poor, through modification,and further cracking of lower molecular weight, increasing its solubility inthe solvent can be applied to the ink. Each cellulose molecule chain,formed by 2 βglucose, dehydrated, each βglucose base ring with 3hydroxyl groups, and esterification of acids after reaction becomesnitrocellulose, and the esterification of nitrate, also known as nitrification.
??? Evaluation of nitrate nitrogen is the main quality index, solubility,viscosity and stability. Nitrogen depending on nitration of mixed acidconcentration and dosage. Acid concentration is low, the nitrogencontent of the products is also lower. Industrial production to avoidreacting with plenty of mixed acid water and decrease its concentration.Ratio of sulfuric acid and nitric acid have little effect on products,commonly used ratio of 3 to 1. Viscosity of nitrocellulose directly related tomolecular weight. After nitration of viscosity up to 1000 seconds or morefiber, cannot be applied in coatings and inks, must be boiled under pressure, making molecular decomposition, reduce the viscosity can beused. As we said earlier, the nitrocellulose coatings and inks the viscositybetween 40 seconds and 1/4 of a second, molecular weightapproximately 22000 to 68000.
Reason that nitrate is a flammable explosive materials, is because at 80 per cent of its decomposition releasing nitrogen dioxide higher than 100 cdecomposition is intense, so as to cause an explosion. So for the sake ofsecurity, need 95% of alcohol wet packing of products, the nitrate contentin the product is 70%. The free acid content in the product should not betoo high, otherwise it will easily give rise to decomposition, dangerous.
??? Second, the physicochemical properties of nitrocellulose
??? 1 appearance and shape: white wool fibers or thin sheet material.
??? 2, odor: odorless cellulose nitrate. Wetting agent must have thepungent odor of volatile.
??? 3, PH value: not applicable.
??? 4, density: not applicable.
??? 5, bulk density: 250-600kg/M3
??? 6, nitrocellulose is soluble in esters, ketones and ethylene glycol. Ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol completely miscible with water, butanol isslightly soluble in water.
??? 7, flash point: the 14 c; isopropyl alcohol 12 c; n-butanol 35
??? 8, decomposition temperature: 180
??? Summary of the three, the danger of nitrocellulose
??? Nitrocellulose in terms of risk and dangerous flash point in the categorybelong to class 4.1 flammable solids. Health hazard: cellulose nitrate isharmless to human body. A wetting agent can irritate eyes, skin andrespiratory; excessive exposure to solvent vapors can produce dizziness,stupor and even unconscious. Encroachment is penetrated mainly throughinhalation of volatile wetting agents, water exception. Explosion hazard:nitrocellulose can be flame, heat, vibration, impact, friction, static or sparksignited, burning nitrocellulose will produce toxic gases. Volatile solventvapors may form explosive mixtures with air.
??? Main first-aid measures is determined primarily according to the wettingagent, wetting agent mainly varieties of ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol,first aid measures related to their physical and chemical properties andreferences the nitrocellulose manufacturer provides the specification ofhazardrelated provisions.
Also must pay attention to fire safety measures, correct method of fire-fighting and extinguishing media only a little, is the combustion of cellulosenitrate can only use large amounts of water. Meanwhile, smoke emissionsfrom combustion of cellulose nitrate containing toxic nitrous gases, so you must wear protective equipment, firefighters have to work from the upper hand and should be equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus inorder to prevent possible toxic and irritating smoke, for early fire rescue is also should be aware of. After the fire was extinguished, nitrocellulose mayalso be spontaneous again, ensure that the residue completely wet, thenproceed to the next step on this basis.
??? Nitrocellulose spill emergency, whether the production team or theSecurity Manager, common sense is a must. First priority is to remove theignition fires, no smoking, ensuring fresh air flow. Leaked with eye or skincontact should be avoided. Also should avoid inhalation of volatile vapors.Enter the spill zone wear protective gear. Tools for nitrocellulose should benon-ferrous materials, such as copper or brass collisions do not producesparks or wood materials, plastics manufacturing tools are not allowed.Because friction is easy to produce static electricity. Loose cellulose nitratemust be completely wet with lots of water and carefully clean it. Sealedcontainer and put it into watertight in timely manner. For the ISO14000environmental requirements such as, must prevent the scattering ofcellulose nitrate polluted water, drains, soil or vegetation.
Four, processing and storage of nitrocellulose
??? Nitrocellulose is stable under recommended storage and handlingconditions. Prohibit or strongly alkaline and strongly acid, amine oxidizing agent contacts. Avoid contact with the heat source and fire, shock andfriction. Humidity is getting old, and less stable. Please follow therecommended storage conditions for storage.
Nitrocellulose is the important point. Note: do not drop packaging, sliding,rolling, pulled or hammered; avoid sources of ignition, heat sources,vibration, shock, friction, fire or electricity. Don’t let wet cellulose nitratedrying ensure air flow; when the package is opened, carefully packingcontainers (bags) inner polyethylene bag; avoiding contact with alkali andacids, amines or oxidants; keep minimum stock of products in the region.
??? As store, also to note following several points: store Yu cool ventilation good of warehouse in the; away from fire, and heat, not allows Sun directly irradiation; steel barrels packaging tray load up two a container height; nitrification cellulose not allows and not compatible of raw materials together store, as and strong alkaline and strong acid material, and amine or oxidation oxygen together store; must to by advanced first out principles turnover inventory goods; banned in store district within open or pour empty packaging real; store should meet national and local environmental protection regulations.
??? Warehouse storage of nitrocellulose must be equipped with theexpertise of the technical staff, its warehouses and premises should belocated by professionals, staff should be trained and certified uponexamination. According to the national standard GB13690-92 theprovisions of the classification and labels of dangerous chemical substances commonly used civilian nitrocellulose as the fourth category offlammable solids, flammable substances at the genus level, strictly prohibited civilian air storage or nitrocellulose interspersed. According to the provisions of the code for fire protection design of buildings GB GBJ16-87, storage of nitrocellulose, fire hazard classification as category, civiliannitrocellulose warehouse building not less than 20m from the othercategories of articles from important public buildings fire protectiondistance of not less than 50m.
??? Nitrocellulose and other such items with storage is not allowed, you must isolate limited storage, not more than 200T single largest stock.Nitrocellulose storage premises or warehouse to the transmission anddistribution lines, light fixtures, lighting and fire evacuation signs shallcomply with the safety requirements; nitrification warehouses lightningprotection must be installed. Storage of nitrocellulose moisture (or solvent)content not less than 25%, nitrocellulose safety conformity and certificates;nitrocellulose products packaged in good condition, no damage.
??? In the hot summer months, nitrocellulose air temperature exceeds 30 c,the cooling measures should be taken, such as secure channel with waterhumidification in the library, in the cool rain roof installation using regulardoor ventilation window, which the PRD majority of coatings enterprisesmust pay attention to. In addition, civilian nitrocellulose stored for over sixmonths (by the date of production), be sure to regularly checknitrocellulose by wetting agent (water or solvent) content and stability,stability and performance is not qualified to suppliers in a timely mannerwhen dealing with.
??? Warehouses for storing nitrocellulose, we must establish a strictmanagement system, into civilian use nitrocellulose, storage area, motorvehicles and of vehicles must be banned Fireworks and fire safetymeasures should be taken, enter the library staff cell phones and pagersshould be shut down. When handling, transporting nitrocellulose should belight, light discharge. No throw, hit, hit, hit, hauling, dumping and scrolling.Nitrocellulose not allowed unopened packaged within a library, if you need right out of the box (barrels, packages), opened the packagesamples, appropriate product box (barrel, Pack) moved out of the library asafe place.
??? When you dress up, cleaning, loading and unloading of nitrocellulose,use copper, alloys do not produce sparks or other nonsparking tools,prohibited the use of iron tools. When the repair of NC machiningequipment, nitrocellulose should first clean up equipment. With water wetrepair parts. And use Flash tools. Because sunlight can chemicallyinduceddecomposition of nitrocellulose Burns, nitrocellulose products would takesteps away from light, exposure is prohibited.
??? Prohibition of nitrocellulose stored accumulation of combustibles in theregion (including scrap), with strong oxidants, corrosive substances andorganic amine to cache. Unqualified nitrocellulose shall not be reported as finished, safe location should be specified in the staging process. Scatterednitrocellulose should be promptly cleaned, in order to open a safe placeburned down in a timely manner. Not to throw to leave around; whenburned abandoned civilian nitrocellulose, long-distance (over 3 m) fire.Each time you burned is limited in 1kg respectively. Once the nitrocelluloseBurns, only fast with plenty of water for fire fighting, Sandy must not hide!
??? Countries to strengthen the management of transport of nitrocellulose,ensure the safety of transport of nitrocellulose, nitrocellulose transportrequirements are as follows: first shipment of the nitrocellulose vehicles must be kept in good condition, transport of the road transport of dangerous goods certificate issued by the management authority, and has thetriangle ceiling light, signs of dangerous goods. When shippingnitrocellulose, carriage shall be clean, mat boards, mats or rubber sheets, etc. Equipped with tying ropes, nets, rain-proofsecurity. Second shipmentof the nitrocellulose driver must be in possession of the driver’s license, and in line with the vehicle type of the dangerous goods certificate, master theknowledge of the transport of dangerous goods. Nitrocellulose thirdshipment of vehicles, must hold a document issued by the Fire Departmentof the flammable and explosive chemical goods transportation permits,armed with fire extinguishers, grasp the relevant knowledge of the properuse of fire extinguishers. Nitrocellulose vehicles running on the way ofshipment, must strictly abide by traffic, fire, security regulations, shouldcontrol the speed and keep a safety distance of 50 meters above thevehicle, shall not point residents live in dense, pedestrian and other placeto park. Vehicles is prohibited to take unrelated persons, persons nonsmoking in the car. In a moving way temporary overnight parking ofvehicles, shall arrange for the custody. Such as occurred during the driverequired soldering repair faults, such as, carrying nitrocellulose should bebehind the dump in safe locations to repair the fault.
Five, the pattern of today’s production of nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose is mainly used in the manufacture of paint and celluloid,which is the raw material for production of table tennis. Just as the worldtable tennis competition focused on China, nitrocellulose, internationalcompetition is increasingly becoming competitive in China. Nitrate inChina (TNC), France SNPE and other Giants have established processingbases in mainland China, SNC as a County leader of nitrocellulose, withmany multinational companies compete and cooperate.
??? As early as 40 years ago, some people think nitrocellulose has come tothe end of his life, and because at that time there has been seems toreplace the nitrocellulose, acrylic resin. But in fact, until today,nitrocellulose products are also widely used, especially in Asia, especially inChina, is flourishing. Unlike some other industries, Chinese NC industry‘sposition is also leaps and bounds in the international arena. Currentproduction of nitrocellulose, there are dozens of factories in the world, butthat will quickly reduce the number could end up only more than 10 companies will survive. Nitrocellulose in European and American marketsare shrinking, while the Asian market is growingin recent years, with thedevelopment of home decoration and automobile industry, nitrocelluloseAsian markets to markets in Europe and America, a rapidly growing 5% rate of more than a year, the Chinese market was growing faster. However,nitrocellulose world markets and Chinese markets have one thing in common: both are far more production capacity than the marketdemand, the competitive situation grim. Now, global demand fornitrocellulose market basically stable at 200,000 tons, which needs nearly80,000 tonnes per year in Asia, mainland China demand more than 60,000tons per year.
??? SNC is the world‘s largest in the nitrocellulose production enterprises, butat present many nitrocellulose manufacturer wanted to seize the Chinesemarket on nitrocellulose peers also have expanded production capacity in the country, a desperate search for markets, in this case, the consolidationof existing markets and developing new markets is very difficult. WorldFrance, and Brazil, and India and the United Kingdom, and Germany, theCzech Republic, as well as extermination in Taiwan have a greaternitrocellulose manufacturer, when these companies have turned to Chinawhen the SNC cannot be too optimistic. For the SNC, the most powerfulnitriterivals China and Taiwan (TNC) and France SNPE. Taiwan, province ofChina’s Sichuan province, SNC, TNC and France‘s SNPE, appears to bethree battles, also can be seen as two strong against the other. Becausenitrate and SNPE have formed together in mainland Chinathey haveincorporated joint venture in 1996 in Hong Kong Hong Kong Chinanitrocellulose limited, with registered capital of us $ 10 million (close to theSNC or carried 130 million yuan of registered capital), with a totalinvestment of 25 million dollars. In the joint venture company under the

Production of nitrocellulose

1. instruments, medicines: concentrated nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, and large grinding and grinding reagent bottle stopper, glass rods, large tweezers, stainless steel pot,
Sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate, potassium nitrate, diphenylamine, alcohol, high density polyethylene bottles, black plastic bags.

2. configure a mixed acid: large size milling added to reagent bottle of concentrated nitric acid: sulfuric acid =1:3~4 (v/v), being careful to pour sulfuric acid nitric acid,
To prevent spills, and gently stir or mix with a glass rod slightly shaking the bottle, cover the ground glass stopper to cool to room temperature on standby.

3. nitrification: the absorbent cotton, nitrocellulose
Or immersed in a mixture of acid paper, at the same time with a glass rod to the air bubbles out, finally left a bottle of 5mm acid layer (cover by nitration of acid surface),
At room temperature for 20 minutes.

4. cleaning: large tweezers out of nitrocellulose, rinse with water to lose acidity.

5. stability and handling: wash and boil of nitrocellulose in dilute solution of sodium carbonate 20~30min, keep the solution is alkaline.
Wash to remove neutral or slightly alkaline. Dry before dipping 2% potassium nitrate solution, remove and dry the immersion 2% diphenylamine alcohol solution, remove and dry.
6. Save: mount HDPE bottles (that’s usually solid chemical 500g a bottle),
External sleeve on the black plastic bags (bottles of nitric acid), dry, cool, saves, or refrigerator freezer (do not put in the freezer,
Low temperature can lead to breakage, ignite will produce a conflagration), good quality of nitrocellulose stored in the refrigerator up to a few years.
7. burning rate: the highest drying nitrocellulose, paper second, nitrification of toilet paper burning rate slightly higher than that of gunpowder, fuses can be made.
8. quality: light, strong cotton will only leave trace residue, no sour taste. Due to the decomposition of nitrocellulose, so long-term storage to periodically check the metamorphic conditions,
You can take a small amount of nitrocellulose lit, not smell the sourness of flue gas after combustion, and has a strong pungent sour, poor quality, yellow is also bad signs
But slight yellowing does not affect use, save.

9. lighting: fifth battery spring in a ballpoint pen can be lit within 5 seconds of nitrocellulose, dry cotton Twine after the soaking solution of potassium nitrate,
Sweet, light sticks, with a lighter or match to light be careful not to burn it. 10. use: magic, was the fire an important raw material for paper, due to the far greater thrust than gunpowder,
And highly flammable, you can move the 10MM to the following metal projectiles. Due to the burning speed, pressure, Fireworks does not apply. Good quality and very fast burning rate of nitrocellulose,
So it can be lit directly on the hand and does not burn, but pay attention to the amount of added, too high will produce molten potassium nitrate residue causes burns.